What are wrinkles?
Wrinkles are one of the main signs of aging. They usually appear on the face, neck, hands and forearms.
When the collagen structure in the dermal matrix breaks down, it acquires a U-shaped indentation, which we know as wrinkles.
A wrinkle appears due to skin aging, the reduction of collagen over the years or the influence of external agents such as ultraviolet rays, dryness, lack of hydration or pollution.
Causes of wrinkles
The cause of wrinkles, in all cases, is dehydration. As the skin loses its ability to retain water, it becomes dry and causes damage that is represented as wrinkles.
The gestures we make on a regular basis cause creases that become more evident as we age.
- Age. Up to the age of 30, the skin remains smooth and youthful. It is at this age that both collagen and elastin in the body begin to diminish. In turn, the cells responsible for their production are also weakened. It is now when flaccidity appears and it is time to start preventing this loss.
In the next decade, the skin becomes rougher, fine lines and sagging are more evident. After the age of 50, more skin blemishes appear due to aging. Expression lines are more pronounced, there are more wrinkles and deeper wrinkles.
- Ultraviolet exposure. Sun exposure accelerates the aging process because it damages the skin’s connective tissue in the dermis. This tissue acts as a support, so excessive exposure causes it to weaken.
- Facial expressions. Common gestures such as smiling, opening the eyes or talking, produce small lines that, as we age, become wrinkles, due to the loss of skin flexibility.
- External agents. Pollution, alcohol or tobacco also influence the skin aging process. They slow collagen production and cell oxygenation.
Types of wrinkles
Although we have wrinkles all over the body, it is the facial wrinkles that people are most concerned about. These are the most obvious and mainly involve the forehead, eye line, base of the nose and lips.
- Statics: are the natural lines of the skin, which we have from birth. With aging, they become more marked.
- Dynamics: these wrinkles are those generated by muscle movements. They are also known as expression wrinkles, since they are marked when performing actions such as smiling, moving the lips or frowning.
- Gravitational: are those produced by the effects of aging. Due to the loss of hydration and the decrease in collagen and elastin production, the skin droops, loses luminosity and tone. They are commonly found on the sides of the face and neck.
- Mixed: are usually located under the nose and on the upper lips. Sometimes they extend to the jaw. They appear due to aging, but are accentuated by extended sun exposure over the years.
How to prevent wrinkles
The natural aging process can be slowed down by following a daily skin care process which, of course, includes not smoking and low sun exposure.
The first thing is to take care of the skin from the sun, trying not to expose it during the hours of highest ultraviolet radiation index. Caps, hats and sunglasses help protect the face.
As for sunscreen, a broad-spectrum sunscreen is recommended, which means it blocks UVA and UVB rays, with SPF 30 or higher, all year round, not just in summer.
In some cases, skin protection products include broad-spectrum sunscreen.
To avoid dry skin, which causes the creation of the first lines, it is important to moisturize regularly to maintain the skin’s elasticity.
Skin health is also influenced by stress and diet. There are foods that help against skin aging and oxidation. Others enhance the aging of skin cells.
To slow down and even reverse the creation of new wrinkles, it is necessary to maintain consistencywith the indicated treatment.
Each skin is different, so each treatment must be studied to be most effective.
However, the most effective treatments for wrinkles use hydration and skin fillers, as well as aesthetic devices to reduce flaccidity.
The active ingredients most commonly used to combat wrinkles are hyaluronic acid, vitamin A, retinol and other antioxidants, due to their excellent moisturizing effects. Products containing alcohol as an ingredient should be avoided.
In terms of equipment, radiofrequency and electroporation can be used. Radiofrequency helps to tighten the connective tissue, while electroporation can deliver the actives to deeper layers of the skin, so the effects of these are much greater.
The combination of both technologies will show better results, as it will achieve skin firming through the stimulation of collagen and the introduction of certain antioxidant and tightening actives in the skin.
In some cases, Botox can also be used, which is an invasive technique that consists of injecting botulinum toxin in areas such as between the eyebrows, forehead or crow’s feet to provide tension to the area.